This book is invariably to be kept locked up when not in use and is not to be taken outside the ship or establishment for which it it issued without the express permission of the Commanding Officer
C.B.  04051 (94)
"U 593"
Interrogation of Survivors
February, 1944
This Report is not to be considered accurate in all respects, having been prepared before complete information was available.  It is therefore not to be taken as historically correct.



          This book is the property of His Majesty's Government.  
          It is intended for the use of the recipients only, and for communication to such Officers under them (not below the rank of Commissioned Officer) who may require to be acquainted with its contents in the course of their duties.  The Officers exercising this power will be held responsible that such information is imparted with due care and caution.  



Attention is called to the penalties attaching to any infraction of the
Official Secrets Acts.
C.B.  04051 (94)
"U 593"
Interrogation of Survivors
February, 1944
  N.I.D. 09396/43.  


          The following report is compiled from information derived from prisoners of war.  The statements made cannot always be verified; they should therefore not be accepted as facts unless they are definitely stated to be confirmed by information from other sources.  


  Introductory Remarks  
    (i)  General;  (ii)  Commanding Officer;  (iii)  Ship's Company;  (iv)  Features of this report;  (v)  Equivalent Ranks.  
  Details of "U 593"  
    (i)  Type;  (ii)  Tonnage;  (iii)  Builders;  (iv)  Armament (a)  Guns, (b)  Torpedoes, (c)  Torpedo Tubes;  (v)  Diesels;  (vi)  Superchargers; (vii) Motors and Switchboards;   (viii)  Compressors;  (ix)  Welding Gear;  (x)  Radar;  (xi)  G.S.R.;  (xii)  W/T Equipment;  (xiii)  Underwater S.T.;  (xiv)  Multi-unit Hydrophones;  (xv)  Echo-sounding Gear;  (xvi)  R.D.B.;  (xvii)  S.B.T.;  (xviii)  Camouflage;  (xix)  Rubber Dinghies;  (xx)  Flotilla;  (xxi)  Base;  (xxii)  Badge;  (xxiii)  Field Post Number.  
  Fifteenth and Last Patrol of "U 593"  
  Sinking of "U 593"  
  General Remarks on U-Boats  
    (i)  U-Boat Tactics in the Mediterranean;  (ii)  U-Boat Flak  (a)  20 mm. (0.79 in.) Gun Crews,  (b)  37 mm. (1.45 in.) Single Barrel Gun Crews,  (c)  Sighting,  (d)  Rate of fire of 20 mm. Guns,  (e)  37 and 20 mm. Tracer Ammunition,  (f)  Use of the M.G. 81;  (iii)  Lethal Distance of Depth Charges;  (iv)  U-Boat Co-operation with Aircraft;  (v)  Silent Running Trials at Sönderborg (Denmark);  (vi)  Dual Purpose Propulsion ("Einheitsantrieb");  (vii)  Health of U-Boat Crews;  (viii)  Trainer for U-Boat Commanding Officers;  (ix)  Experimental Station at Neustadt-Pelzerhaken;  (x)  Surfacing at Night near Hospital Ships.  
  U-Boat Bases and Flotillas  
    (i)  Le Harve;  (ii)  St. Nazaire;  (iii)  Marseilles;  (iv)  Toulon;  (v)  Kiel.  
  Surface Vessels  
    (i)  German Warships Lost or Damaged in 1940;  (ii)  "Monte Samiento";  (iii)  "Graf Zeppelin."  
      (i)  F.A.T.-T.3 (Curly);  (ii)  T.4;  (iii)  T.5 (Gnat);  (iv)  Future Developments of Torpedoes.    
  Miscellaneous Remarks  
      (i)  Treatment of Prisoners suspected of Espionage;  (ii)  Japanese-German Relations.    
                APPENDIX "A."  Building and Working up of "U 593"
                APPENDIX "B."  Previous Patrols of "U 593"
    (i)  First Patrol;  (ii)  Second Patrol;  (iii)  Third Patrol;  (iv)  Fourth Patrol;  (v)  Fifth Patrol;  (vi)  Sixth Patrol;  (vii)  Seventh Patrol;  (viii)  Eighth Patrol;  (ix)  Ninth Patrol;  (x)  Tenth Patrol;  (xi)  Eleventh Patrol;  (xii)  Twelfth Patrol;  (xiii)  Thirteenth Patrol;  (xiv)  Fourteenth Patrol.  
                APPENDIX "C."  Nominal Roll of "U 593"
  (C51975)                                                                                                                             B2  


               SUNK 13th DECEMBER, 1943, BY H.M.S. "CALPE" AND U.S.S. "WAINWRIGHT" IN
                                                  POSITION 37° 41' N., 06° 06' E.  
  (i)  General  
          "U 593," a 500-ton U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Gerd Kelbling, was sunk in the Mediterranean by H.M.S. "Calpe" and U.S.S. "Wainwright" by depth-charge attacks in position 37° 41' N., 06° 06' E., at 1450 on 13th December, 1943.  
          "U 593" was on her fifteenth patrol when she was sunk, having been in commission over two years.  During the course of her long history, she claimed the sinking of 15 merchant vessels and the damaging of three others, in addition to sinking three destroyers.  Most of her success was achieved in the Mediterranean which she entered on her fourth patrol in late September or early October, 1942.  
  (ii)  Commanding Officer  
          The Commanding Officer of "U 593," Kapitänleutnant Gerd Kelbling, who although listed as 1933 term in the German Navy List, claimed that he was of the 1934 term.  After completing his course at the naval college, Kelbling was aboard "Deutschland" when she was engaged in the neutrality patrol off Spain.  He then served for a time in the 1st Minesweeping Flotilla and in June, 1939, in the Danube Flotilla.  At the outbreak of war, he transferred to the U-Boat arm.  Before taking command of "U 593," he served as commanding officer under instruction in "U 557," then commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ottokar Paulssen.  He was given command of "U 593" during her final phases of construction in October, 1941.  In August, 1943, he was awarded the Knight's Cross.  
          Kelbling was well regarded by his crew who stated that, although a strict disciplinarian on board, he was always fair and gave praise where it was due.  His officers spoke of his unusual skill as a U-Boat commander.  At the time of the sinking, Kelbling's chief concern seems to have been with the proper scuttling of his U-Boat.  He was courteous and intelligent with the interrogating officers, and extremely correct in his behaviour.  
  (iii)  Ship's Company  
          The entire complement of "U 593" survived.  It consisted of 51 officers and men including a Surgeon-Lieutenant.  A number of petty officers had been with the boat since commissioning.  These experienced hands had the opportunity of drilling the men in security while en route from Africa to the United Kingdom.  As a result, the morale of the crew was high and, as a whole, they were extremely security conscious.  
          Two days before the majority of the prisoners were evacuated from North Africa to the United Kingdom, the Second Watchkeeping Officer escaped with an officer from "U 73."  
  (iv)  Features of this Report are:  
          (a)  Details on torpedoes.  (See Section VIII.)  
          (b)  German flak procedure.  (See Section V (ii).)  
  (v)  Equivalent Ranks  
          The following are the Royal Navy equivalents of German Naval ranks used in this report:  
Fregattenkapitän Commander.
Korvettenkapitän Lieutenant-Commander.
Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant.
Oberleutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant.
Leutnant zur See Junior Sub-Lieutenant.
Oberfähnrich zur See Senior Midshipman.
Fähnrich zur See Junior Midshipman.
Marineoberassistentarzt Surgeon-Lieutenant.
          The suffix (Ing.) after a German rank in place of "zur See" denotes an Engineer Officer.  The suffix "der Reserve" denotes a Reserve Officer.  
  (C51975)                                                                                                                              B3  


  Type VII C.
  Tonnage 500 tons.
  Builders Blohm & Voss, Hamburg.  Commissioned 23rd October, 1941.
  Armament (a)  Guns:  Two twin 20 mm. (0.79 in.) mountings on the lower bandstand.  One twin 20 mm. mounting on the upper bandstand.  Two M.G.s 81 on the bridge.  A quadruple 20 mm. mounting had been carried on the penultimate patrol but the Commanding Officer, considering it unsuitable for operations in the Mediterranean due to the length of time required to bring it into action, had it replaced by the two twin 20 mm. guns.
    (b)  Torpedoes:  Twelve torpedoes were carried on the last patrol.  Four of these were T.5s (Gnats) and the remainder were F.A.T. T.3s (Curlies) and normal electric torpedoes.  The T.5s which had been carried on the penultimate patrol as well, were loaded in tubes II and V.  One spare was carried on the floor plates aft and one on the floor plates forward.  (For details, see Section VIII.)  
    (c)  Torpedo Tubes:  Four forward and one aft.
  Diesels G.W.
  Superchargers Rootes blower type.
  Motors and Switchboards Brown-Boveri.
  Compressors One electric and one Junkers free piston.
  Welding Gear Electric welding gear only was carried.
  Radar Not carried, although a standard type aerial was fitted consisting of eight dipoles, and a figure-eight aerial on the back for the G.S.R.
  G.S.R. Naxos and Wanze II carried.  The Naxos set was fitted for the penultimate patrol, probably in September or October, 1943.
  W/T Equipment One 200-watt short wave transmitter.  One 150-watt long wave transmitter.  One short wave receiver with five valves.
  Underwater S.T. Elag type.
  Multi-unit Hydrophones Elag type.
  Echo-sounding Gear Elag type.
  R.D.B. Carried but never used.
  S.B.T. Carried but never used.
  Camouflage Irregular white and grey patches.
  Rubber Dinghies Several carried.  Three or four canvas sacks, about 1 ft. long and 10 cm. (3.9 in.) in diameter, filled with coloured powder were carried.  These were to be given to the crew when they had taken to the dinghies.  The contents were to be thrown into the water which would become discoloured, thus attracting the attention of aircraft.
  Flotilla Twenty-ninth.
  Base Toulon.
  Badge Thistle.
  Field Post Number M.38214.
  (i)  Departure from Toulon  
          "U 593 sailed from Toulon on her fifteenth and last patrol on 3rd December, 1943, at 1730.  Shortly after her departure, it was discovered that both the Junkers compressor and the No. 1 group of air bottles were defective, but Kelbling decided to continue the patrol.  According to a captured document, after clearing the harbour at 1830, the U-Boat made good a course of 150° at 3/5 speed (2 X H.F.) until 1930.  She then altered course to 125° and proceeded at slow speed until 0334 on 4th December, when she submerged for the first time.  Her operational area was some distance south of Majorca.  


  (ii)  Attack on a Merchant Vessel  
          Six or eight days after sailing, "U 593" made an unsuccessful attack on a merchant vessel.  Several torpedoes were fired but no hits were scored.  
  (iii)  Sinking of H.M.S. "Tynedale"  
          Early in the morning of 12th December, an Allied convoy was sighted and "U 593" immediately manoeuvred to attack at periscope depth.  At 0630, a T.5 (Gnat) torpedo was fired from Tube II.  A hit was scored on one of the escorting destroyers which sank.  (N.I.D. Note.  H.M.S. "Tynedale," escorting convoy KMS34, was zig-zagging 120° every five minutes, but at the time of the attack, she had prolonged one leg of the zig-zag over five minutes.  Asdic listening watch only was being kept during temporary adjustment to the S/R key.  No H.E. was heard from the torpedo or the U-Boat.  The destroyer was hit on the port side, abreast the funnel, and broke in half.)  
  (iv)  Sinking of H.M.S. "Holcombe"  
          Prisoners stated that, although depth-charges were heard exploding, "U 593" remained within striking distance of the convoy after making her first attack.  At about 1200, the U-Boat again attacked a destroyer, firing a T.5 from Tube V.  The torpedo ran for 3 minutes 32 seconds before finding its mark.  The destroyer sank quickly.  (N.I.D. Note.  H.M.S. "Holcombe" was hunting a U-Boat on 12th December, 1943.  A contact was obtained at 1,700 yards, Red 40, and the destroyer turned towards to attack.  A torpedo hit her aft, the U-Boat contact at the time of the explosion being right ahead at 1,400 yards.  No H.E. contact was obtained from the torpedo.)  After the sinking of the second destroyer, "U 593 took evasive action and made no further attempt to attack the convoy.  She was never to have the opportunity of reporting her successes to Control.  
  (v)  Aircraft Attack  
          At about 2015, "U 593" surfaced to charge her batteries.  A few minutes later, she was surprised by a searchlight aircraft, no warning having been received on the G.S.R.  The U-Boat opened fire at the aircraft which turned away without attacking.  (N.I.D. Note.  On the night of 12th/13th December, 1943, an Africa-based Wellington sighted a surfaced U-Boat.  The Leigh light failed and no bombs were dropped.  The bomber was extensively damaged by flak.)  "U 593" then dived and remained submerged throughout the night, surfacing only for a brief period early in the morning of 13th December.  
  (i)  Depth-charge Attacks  
          At about 1100 on 13th December, screw noises were reported by the W/T operator, and the prisoners from "U 593" first realized that they were being hunted by surface craft.  At about 1400, when the U-Boat was proceeding at what was described as "normal depth," a pattern of depth-charges were dropped very close to the U-Boat, putting her hydrophones, depth gauges and lighting out of action.  Kelbling immediately gave the order to dive deeper but a second depth-charge attack was made before the order could be executed.  A sea inlet for the Diesel cooling system was damaged and "U 593" began shipping a considerable amount of water.  After this second attack, a curious noise was heard within the U-Boat, sounding, according to Kelbling, like a handful of pebbles thrown against a wall.  The P.O. Telegraphist suggested that it might have been due to the cross effect of two ships working together with Asdic.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1400 on 13th December, 1943, U.S.S. "Wainwright" and H.M.S. "Calpe" were carrying out A/S sweeps in the vicinity of position 37° 49' N., 06° 00' E.  At 1407, "Wainwright" obtained an Asdic contact on her port beam and at about 1412, dropped a five-charge pattern.  "Calpe" gained a contact and, at 1430, dropped a ten-charge pattern.  "Calpe" then turned and made another run while "Wainwright" maintained contact.  At 1441 "Calpe" dropped her second ten-charge pattern.)  
  (ii)  "U 593" Surfaces  
          The Engineer Officer reported to Kelbling that "U 593" was shipping about 400 litres (88 gallons) of water per minute.  Kelbling misunderstood the message and, thinking that only a quarter of a litre of water per minute was entering, decided to remain submerged.  The U-Boat quickly became heavy by the stern, however, and it was only when the Engineer Officer reported that the bilges were flooding and the main motors were in danger, that Kelbling realized the full extent of the damage.  In an attempt to maintain trim, as many of the crew as could be spared from the controls were ordered to the bow compartment.  The tanks were then blown but the supply of H.P air failed to give the U-Boat the necessary buoyancy and she sank still further.  
          The Engineer Officer managed to get the main motors running at half speed and the U-Boat was brought to the surface, her H.P. air being almost exhausted.  Kelbling opened the conning-tower hatch and saw two destroyers on either beam.  The both immediately opened fire and Kelbling gave the order to set and fire scuttling charges and abandon ship.  After about half the crew had jumped overboard, fire from the destroyers ceased.  
  (C51975)                                                                                                                              B4  


          (N.I.D. Note.  At 1441, the U-Boat surfaced with "Wainwright" 2,000 yards north-west of her and "Calpe" 2,000 yards south-south-west.  Fire was immediately opened by both destroyers to prevent the U-Boat's crew manning their guns.  The U-Boat made no attempt to return the fire and, as she settled low in the water, her crew quickly abandoned ship.)  
  (iii)  Scuttling of "U 593"  
          Scuttling charge were set in the Diesel Room, the Control Room and the Bow Torpedo Room.  Most of the crew had abandoned ship when one of the destroyers, which had approached to within 500 yards, lowered a motor-boat.  In the meantime, Kelbling and an E.R.A. went below and opened the after torpedo hatch to ensure a more rapid sinking of the boat.  The hatch was wedged open with whatever lay to hand to prevent its being shut again.  The Engineer Officer and one or two senior ratings took machine pistols on the bridge to hold off any boarding party that might have approached the U-Boat.  
          The fuses of the scuttling charges were burning when Kelbling reappeared on the bridge, just as the motor-boat arrived to take him off.  He managed to persuade his captors that the charges were due to blow at any moment and no attempt to board the U-Boat was made.  Events had followed one another with such rapidity, that "U 593" was unable to signal Control of her sinking.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  "Wainwright" and "Calpe" closed to within 100 yards of the U-Boat and the former sent a motor-boat to try and prevent scuttling.  It was obvious, however, that machinery for scuttling had been set in motion and no chance remained of boarding her.  The U-Boat sank at 1450 in position 37° 41' N., 06° 06' E., bows first.  The entire complement of the U-Boat was picked up by "Calpe" and "Wainwright.")  
  (i)  U-Boat Tactics in the Mediterranean  
          It was stated that U-Boat commanding officers are given only very general patrol areas in the Mediterranean and, except when ordered by signal from Control, operate at their own discretion.  U-Boats never operate in groups and U-Boat contact keepers are unknown.  
          Most U-Boat commanding officers have little faith in their G.S.R.'s and almost invariably resort to flak defences when an aircraft approaches.  The hold  the opinion that British A/S aircraft in the Mediterranean are less efficient than those in the Atlantic.  
          One prisoner spoke of a secret warning given to U-Boats to the effect that a German U-Boat manned by a British crew is operating in the Mediterranean.  He also said that frequently British submarines lay in wait near U-Boat bases.  When the presence of one of these is suspected, incoming or outgoing U-Boats are given air cover.  
          When leaving a Mediterranean port, "U 593" was usually escorted by one or more patrol boats at slow speed for about two hours.  After she parted from her escort, she proceeded at cruising speed, stated to be 10 or 12 knots.  
          When an enemy aircraft approached, "U 593" usually submerged to a depth of between 50 to 80 m. (164 to 262 ft.).  When evading a surface craft, she dived to a much greater depth and proceeded at silent running speed.  This was stated to be one knot, 50 to 60 R.P.M.  It was said that U-Boats in the Mediterranean when being attacked by aircraft are forbidden to submerges except where there is sufficient water to allow them to attain a depth of 80 m. (262 ft.).  
  (ii)  U-Boat Flak  
          (a)  20 mm. (0.79 in.) Gun Crews.  The single barrel 20 mm. guns have crews of two or three men.  In the two-man crew, there is a firing member who also trains the gun and an elevation number who also loads.  The three-man crew consists of an elevation number, a firing number who also trains, and a loading number.  The elevation number stands in front of the loading number.  The elevation wheel is always to the left of the gun with its axis parallel to the gun.  The trainer slips a harness over his shoulder with his left arm in a ring of the harness.  
          The 20 mm. twin mounting also has a crew of three.  The loading number loads the left barrel from the side with his left hand and the right barrel from above with his right hand.  
          The 20 mm. quadruple mounting is manned by a crew of four and is manually operated.  No power operated quadruple mountings are being installed, as far as is known by the prisoners.  The firing number, who is also the trainer, sits on the left side of the gun, side by side with the elevation number who sits on the right.  The training is done by means of a geared wheel on a horizontal plane, the elevation by a geared wheel on a vertical plane.  Training, firing, and elevating can be done by one man in an emergency but with considerable loss of efficiency.  Numbers three and four are clip loading numbers.  The lower gun of the left pair is loaded from the left with the left hand and the upper from the right with the right hand.  Both right guns are loaded from the right side.  It takes about 30 seconds to man the guns after the alarm sounds.  
          (b)  37 mm. (1.45 in.) Single Barrel Gun Crews.  In the operation of the 37 mm. gun, one man trains and elevates.  He stands to the right of the gun and trains by means of a harness similar to that of the 20 mm. gun.  (N.I.D. Note.  This is not an efficient means of control.)  Elevation is done  


  by means of a wheel on the right.  The loader stands on the left of the gun.  After firing, the breech opens and when the next round is fed in, the gun fires automatically.  Feed is single shot.  A third man in the crew is the cross-levelling operator.  He sits in front of the other two, behind a horizon sighting device.  This gear is 40 cm. (15.7 in.) long and 25 cm. (9.8 in.) high and has several horizontal slits.  By means of a wheel below the sight, he keeps one of the slits lined up with the horizon, thus stabilizing the gun for cross-roll.  In addition to these three men, there are about five ammunition supply numbers.  
          (c)  Sighting.  There are no gyro sights in the 20 mm. quadruple mounting.  A prisoner had heard that a gyro was incorporated in the 37 mm. twin mounting but he did not know whether it was a gyro sight or a gyro mounting.  
          (d)  Rate of fire of 20 mm. Guns.  It was stated that the theoretical rate of the single 20 mm. type C.30 gun is 4 to 5 rounds per second.  The practical rate of fire is 3 to 4 rounds.  The theoretical rate of fire of the type C.38 is 7 to 8 rounds per second, the practical rate being 4 to 5 rounds.  A prisoner said that he believed that an efficient man with a C.38 could change clips sufficiently quickly to fire 50 to 60 rounds during one run-up of an aircraft.  
          (e)  37 and 20 mm. Ammunition.  High explosive armour piercing 20 mm. ammunition is fitted with tracer.  The tracer extinguishes at a range of 2,100 m. (2,296.5 yards).  The 37 mm. tracer extinguishes at 2,800 m. (3,061 yards).  
          (f)  Use of the M.G.81.  The M.G.81 is used only when the U-Boat is obliged to remain on the surface for some time during an aircraft attack.  
  (iii)  Lethal Distance of Depth-Charges  
          An experienced E.R.A. who had made twenty-one patrols in U-Boats, stated that at a depth of about 50 m. (164 ft.), depth charges must explode within about 20 m. (65.6 ft.) of a U-Boat to be lethal or very damaging.  At depths of from 150 to 200 m. (492 to 656 ft.), charges would have a damaging effect only if they were within 5 m. (16.4 ft.) of the U-Boat.  An officer from the destroyer "T25," stated that 8 m. (26.2 ft.) was the lethal range of depth-charges; he did not specify the depth.  Another prisoner from the U-Boat stated that depth-charges exploding near the stern were most dangerous because of likelihood of damage to the machinery.  (N.I.D. Note.  In this connection it may be noted that depth-charge attacks on both "U 593" and "U 73" damaged sea inlets for the Diesel cooling system, causing water entry.  
  (iv)  U-Boat Co-operation with Aircraft  
          An N.C.O. from the German Air Force stated that U-Boats sometimes have V.H/F. communication with aircraft if enemy forces are in the neighbourhood.  The normal procedure, however, is for the U-Boat to communicate directly to Control.  (N.I.D. Note.  There is no recent evidence from U-Boat prisoners of the use of direct communication with aircraft on V.H/F.)  
          He said that at Bordeaux and Cognac, naval liaison officers are stationed with the air force.  
  (v)  Silent Running Trials at Sönderborg (Denmark)  
          There is reason to believe that "U 470," the 500-ton rubber-covered U-Boat sunk in the Atlantic on 16th October, 1943, conducted silent running or other trials at Sönderborg in spring, 1943.  (See C.B. 04051 (93), page 8.)  
  (vi)  Dual Purpose Propulsion ("Einheitsantrieb")  
          An officer from "U 536" stated that he had seen U-Boats of about 250 tons with single propulsion units.  A prisoner from "U 593" stated that 150-ton U-Boats were being sent to the Mediterranean over land.  He believed then to have single propulsion units.  (N.I.D. Note.  Small type U-Boats with dual purpose propulsion, have recently been reported (B.3) in the Western Mediterranean.)  
  (vii)  Health of U-Boat Crews  
          A well informed prisoner from "U 593" stated that medical officers in U-Boats have very light duties and that their appointment to U-Boats is an unnecessary drain on Germany's heavily taxed supply of medical personnel.  
          These officers do not arrange the diet for U-Boat crews except in a general way.  Such vitamin preparations as Redoxon, Cebion and Cantar are carried in many U-Boats.  Some medical officers believe in them and insist that crews take them regularly, while others feel that the fresh fruit which is carried officers the men sufficient vitamins for their needs.  
          In spite of the attempts at balanced diet, U-Boat men's health is suffering increasingly on long patrols.  Rheumatism and kidney disorders are common ailments.  The large amount of tinned food which is consumed precludes the absorption of sufficient calcium and causes pyorrhea and bone softening.  Greenstick fractures are very common and, because of this, returning crews are forbidden violent sports.  The prisoner spoke of the case of a U-Boat officer who broke a leg merely by jumping off a chair.  


  (viii)  Trainer for U-Boat Commanding Officers  
          An elaborate trainer for officers undergoing courses for U-Boat command, commonly known as "F-Gerät" (Fahrt Gerät-Patrol Gear) is situated at Neustadt in a large structure near the U.A.A. (U-Boat Training School) Post Office building.  It consists of a complete U-Boat conning tower suspended above a large sheet of water with the periscope looking down upon the water.  On the sheet of water are miniature ships on the ends of metal rods  They form convoys which move about at varying speeds and on varying courses, the movements being directed by a civilian named Barkow.  A wide variety of weather conditions and visibility can be simulated by artificial means.  The conning tower can be turned and speeds up to 18 knots can be simulated by moving the ships towards or away from the periscope.  Every periscope U-Boat C.O. must make fifteen successful attacks on the convoy.  Nearly every U-Boat commanding officer has taken this course and they refer to it by saying that they have patrolled with Barkow ("Ich bin bei Barkow gefahren").  
  (ix)  Experimental Station at Neustadt-Pelzerhaken (Lübeck Bay)  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 593" visited this place in August 1943, and stated that a number of trials were being carried out in connection with U-Boat G.S.R. and Radar to prevent U-Boats being detected by A.S.V.  A fine mesh netting, which splayed out towards the base of the bridge, was secured on metal stanchions all round the bridge superstructure, giving it the appearance of a huge bell.  The maximum distance of the netting from the base of the superstructure was about 15 ft.  
          Superstructures thus covered were towed out to sea on floats and Fieseler Storch aircraft circled above, endeavouring to pick up the U-Boat.  As it was found that the huge bell-shaped netting was not seaworthy, efforts were made to bring the netting closer to the superstructure.  However, this did not prove successful, as the closer the netting was to the superstructure, the easier it was to pick up the U-Boat with A.S.V.  
          Trials were continued with superstructures of different shapes and nets of different sizes.  
  (x)  Surfacing at Night near Hospital Ships  
          A number of U-Boat captains were making considerable use of British hospital ships to hide their presence when surfaced at night to charge their batteries.  "U 593" frequently surfaced close to a hospital ship and although destroyers had been sighted in the vicinity, their U-Boat was never discovered because destroyers sweeping with Radar would naturally think their contact was the hospital ship.  It was believed that some hospital ships were equipped with Radar and U-Boats would only lie under their cover to charge batteries after making certain the particular ship was not equipped with Radar.  
  (i)  Le Harve  
          A prisoner gave a description of U-Boat shelters which he had visited at Le Harve, built below the water level.  He said that there were four pens in the Bassin de la Citadelle stretching beneath the railway sidings on the northern quay.  These shelters were well below ground and separated from the main Bassin by special locks.  U-Boats entered the pens by the following method:  
          A lock was opened to let the U-Boat enter.  It was then closed behind the boat and the pen pumped out.  When drained of water, rails appeared at the bottom of the pen.  The U-Boat settled on cradles and slid down the rails into the underground shelter.  To enable the conning-tower to pass, the top of the entrance had to be lifted and was replaced after the U-Boat had entered.  The prisoner had seen two U-Boats in one pen ands said that there was ample room for them with the bow and stern of the two boats overlapping.  There is an underground corridor leading to the pens wide enough for two men to pass.  (N.I.D. Note.  There is no evidence, from air reconnaissance or any other source, to support the above statements.  It seems probable that the prisoner may have been referring to the E/R-Boat pens on the south side of Mole Central.)  
  (ii)  St. Nazaire  
          Locks are being constructed in front of the shelters at St. Nazaire and are now nearing completion.  
          Prisoners said that there is not a whole house standing in the city and that the only buildings undamaged are the shelters.  
  (iii)  Marseilles  
          The new U-Boat base at Marseilles is still in course of construction and should be ready about February, 1944.  U-Boat shelters have been built there and the 29th Flotilla will be transferred from Toulon when the base is ready.  
          Korvettenkapitän von Freeden was said by prisoners to be in command of the new base.  


  (iv)  Toulon  
          The base of the 29th Flotilla was very badly damaged in air attacks on Toulon.  The flotilla buildings were hit but only the crew's quarters, not the flotilla offices, were damaged.  The wharves suffered very heavy damage and work on the boats had to stop for a period.  (N.I.D. Note.  This was presumably in the raid on 24th November, 1943, when the effects of the attack delayed "U 73's" departure.  (See C.B. 04051 (95), Section III (i).)  
          In spite of the fact that there are no shelters, the U-Boats were hit only by flying splinters and were not damaged seriously during the raids.  
          On 2nd December, 1943, the day before "U 73" sailed, there was an attack on Toulon.  An old warship was lying by the pier and two goods trucks were on the wharf nearby.  After the raid one of the trucks had completely disappeared and the other one had been blown on to the deck of the warship.  
          Prisoners said that the French population in Toulon always treated them well and, even after the raids in which there were many casualties, did not appear to resent their presence in the town.  
          When the 29th Flotilla transfers to Marseilles, Toulon will still remain a sub-base.  
          When a U-Boat goes into Toulon yards for repairs she is given a cover number.  This is always an even number, e.g., 32, 34, 36 preceded by "TO."  The numbers are allocated consecutively and each time a boat goes in she receives a new one.  The same workmen, however, are always employed on the came boats if possible.  
  (v)  Kiel  
          An Army prisoner who was in Kiel after the big attack on 14th May, 1943, said that in a little bay off the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal there was a great deal of building in progress.  He was told that new slipways for the construction of U-Boats were being built here to replace the destroyed yards of the Germaniawerft.  
  (i)  German Warships Lost or Damaged  
          A prisoner who had served in the 19th Minesweeping Flotilla stated that on 10th or 11th April, 1940, "Deutschland" ("now "Lützow") was hit aft by a torpedo from an Allied submarine.  Most of her crew were taken off by minesweepers before she limped back to harbour where she remained for a year, undergoing repairs.  
          "Nürnberg" and "Leipzig" were both badly damaged by torpedo and the prisoner doubts whether either ship is fit for anything but very slow cruising in the Baltic.  
          He said that 87 small craft were lost in the Norwegian campaign and that all of the large ships concerned only "Köln" came through unscathed.  (N.I.D. Note.  "Lützow," "Nürnberg" and "Leipzig" were reported at Gdynia during January, 1944 (B.2) and "Köln" at Kiel 6th January, 1944, (R.) ).  
  (ii)  "Monte Samiento"  
          A prisoner observed the effects of a daylight air raid on Kiel in January, 1942.  An unsuccessful attempt was made to bomb "Nürnberg" but she was not hit.  "Monte Samiento," acting as her depot ship, was lying nearby and received two direct hits from heavy bombs.  She was burnt out and had to scuttle to extinguish the flames.  Eight hundred members of "Nürnberg's" crew were on board at the time and lost their lives.  
  (iii)  "Graf Zeppelin"  
          "Graf Zeppelin" was said to have been in Kiel in February, 1943.  (N.I.D. Note.  "Graf Zeppelin" was reported at Stettin on 21st January, 1944 (B.2).)  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Summaries of information on torpedoes, obtained from prisoners from other U-Boats, have been given in C.B. 04051(76), pages 10 and 11, and in C.B. 04051(92), pages 7 and 8.)  
          Two torpedo Petty Officers from "U 593" and "U 73" provided considerable information on torpedoes.  Both had recently been to Gdynia where they had had a brief course of instruction on the T.5 (Gnat).  


  (i)  F.A.T. T.3 (Curly)  
          The F.A.T. T.3 torpedo can either run a curly course to port or starboard, or can describe true circles to port only.  In either case, the angling gear can be used.  After leaving the tube, the torpedo runs for 9.5 m. (311 ft.) before the angling mechanism is actuated.  It then turns on a radius of 95 m. (103.8 yards) into its proper course.  The curly course was described as a series of semicircles with no straight path between.  These semicircles have a diameter of 75 m. (82.9 yards).  The circling course was described as being a true circle of 75 m. diameter.  
  (ii)  T.4  
          Four hundred torpedoes, designated as T.4s, were said to have been manufactured before production was switched to an improved type, the T.5.  
  (iii)  T.5 (Gnat)  
          (a)  Type.  An electric acoustic torpedo, 21 in. in diameter.  
          (b)  Speed.  24 1/2 knots.  
          (c)  Range.  Maximum range, 5,000 m. (5,468 yards).  The safety range, before the acoustic mechanism is actuated and the pistol armed, is said to be 300 to 400 m. (328 to 437.4 yards).  
          (d)  Settings.  
                  N.S. for use when attacking a departing target.  
                  W.S. for use when attacking an approaching target.  
                  S.S. for use when the acoustic mechanism is not required or when it is not functioning properly.  
                  L.O. for use when servicing and changing batteries.  
          (e)  Battery.  Two thirds the size of the battery of a normal electric torpedo.  It has 39 cells, lead-acid type.  
          (f)  Propellers.  Two bladed.  It is said that they must be handled with exceptionally great care.  
          (g)  Nose.  Made of a bakelite-type material and filled with a thin fluid.  The nose contains two listening devices consisting of coils and magnets.  The nose is easily damaged although attempts have been made to strengthen it.  
          (h)  Pistol.  Designated as Pi.4B, top insertion type and stated to be inertia-magnetic.  Under a cover plate on the top of the torpedo, just behind the pistol pocket, is a second pocket containing a coil, the axis being vertical.  There is another coil, around the body of the torpedo at the point where it begins to taper towards the tail.  This is covered with a wooden guard which is smoothed off into the lines of the torpedo.  Both of these coils are said to be connected to the pistol.  They were stated to be alternative coils for different "frequencies."  Degaussing does not affect the working of the pistol.  
          (i)  Tail.  Resembles that of a normal electric torpedo.  
          (j)  Testing.  The acoustic mechanism is tested ashore only, with a buzzer known as "Spatz."  A fixture, having a circular trough, is put on the nose of the torpedo.  As the "Spatz" is moved along the trough, the vertical rudders move in three positions - hard aport, midships, and hard astarboard.  There are no intermediate positions.  
          (k)  Servicing on Board.  The routines for servicing the battery and motor are similar to those of a normal electric torpedo.  The greasing routine is more complicated, however.  Grease may not be applied to the nose or to a strip about 20 cm. (7.9 in.) wide running the entire length of the top of the torpedo.  This strip must be kept polished, however.  Greasing elsewhere must be perfectly smooth and very thinly applied.  Great care has to be taken that the torpedo is not scratched or dented in any way.  
          (l)  Operation.  The acoustic mechanism is stated to be affected by noises only over an arc of 90° ahead, that is 45° on either bow.  The prisoners insisted that it responded only to supersonic waves (Schallwellen) and not to sound waves (Geräuschwellen).  On the other hand, they stated that Asdic could not affect the torpedo.  
          When at Gdynia, the prisoners had witnesses night firing trials.  A light was fitted into the nose of the torpedo to enable observers to follow its course.  The target was the old torpedo boat, "T1," following a zigzag course at 24 knots.  The torpedo was set to run at a depth of 12 m, (39.3 ft.) and was aimed to pass astern of the target.  It wa said to have passed under the target ship three times before finishing its run.  
          (m)  Tactical Use.  The T.5 is fired from periscope depth in precisely the same manner as any other torpedo.  It is for use against escort vessels and may not miss the target by more that 300 to 400 m. (328 to 437.4 yards) if there is to be any hope of scoring a hit.  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 593" stated that after firing a T.5, whether surfaced or at periscope depth, U-Boats are ordered to proceed for one minute at "dead slow," proceeded at "slow speed" before continuing at normal speed.  The purpose of these measures, it was stated, is to eliminate any considerable propeller noises which might attract the torpedo back to the U-Boat.  
          In both "U 593" and "U 73," a T.5 was loaded in Tubes II and V and one spare was carried on the floor plates of each of the torpedo rooms.  Tubes I, II and IV could thus be employed for firing a triple spread of non-acoustic torpedoes.  


  (iv)  Future Developments of Torpedoes  
          Trials are being carried out in the Baltic with blind firing of acoustic torpedoes by use of hydrophones.  No radar directed torpedo firing has been attempted, as far as the prisoners are aware.  
          The prisoners believed that faster types of the "Gnat" have been developed and will soon be coming into service.  
  (i)  Treatment of Prisoners Suspected of Espionage  
          A prisoner from "U 593" stated that he had been informed by an officer on Dönitz' staff regarding the treatment of men suspected of espionage.  These prisoners are quartered in rooms that are completely unfurnished.  The are given thirst-inducing food but are allowed to have nothing to drink.  After several days of such confinement, they are brought before an interrogating officer who has a large pitcher of water on his desk.  During the interrogation, the officer frequently drinks water but allows the prisoner to have none.  If the prisoner is suspected of lying, he is severely beaten and is then sent to the hospital until he has recovered.  The entire process is than repeated.  
  (ii)  Japanese-German Relations  
          A prisoner stated that the officers and men from Japanese submarines visiting French ports are heartily disliked by the Germans.  The Japanese officers had been entertained on board German U-Boats and had been allowed to inspect anything they wished.  These visits were never reciprocated and the prisoner believed that no German had ever been allowed on board a Japanese submarine.  This breach of naval courtesy was much resented.  


          "U 593" was built by Blohm and Voss, Hamburg.  During the final phase of construction, Kelbling became her commanding officer.  She was commissioned on 23rd October, 1941, and shortly thereafter proceeded to Kiel for U.A.K.  On about 5th November she sailed for Rönne for silent running trials and then was allocated to the 25th Flotilla at Danzig for torpedo firing practice.  
          "U 593" arrived back in Kiel on 18th December, 1941, for final adjustments.  She was accompanied by "U 594," then commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hoffmann, and by "Schlesien" acting as escort and icebreaker.  (N.I.D. Note.  "U 594" was reported sunk in the Mediterranean in June or July, 1943.)  "U 593" had damaged one of the caps of her bow torpedo tubes on the ice.  
  (i)  First Patrol  
          "U 593" sailed from Kiel early in March, 1942, on her first patrol.  The officers on this patrol were:  Kapitänleutnant Kelbling, C.O., Oberleutnant Schreiner, First Watchkeeping Officer (N.I.D. Note.  Probably Wolfgang Schreiner of the April, 1937 term), Leutnant Krondörfer, Second Watchkeeping Officer, and Leutnant (Ing.) Barrackling, Engineer Officer.  (N.I.D. Note.  Probably Karl-Heinz Barrackling of the October, 1937 term.)  
          The U-Boat proceeded directly into the Atlantic without stopping ay any Norwegian port.  The patrol lasted about four weeks, most of which was spent off the Irish coast.  Once she was attacked by aircraft but was undamaged.  No success was scored on this patrol and "U 593" put in at St. Nazaire, where she joined the 7th Flotilla.  She arrived a few days after the Commando raid of 28th March, 1942.  
  (ii)  Second Patrol  
          "U 593" sailed from St. Nazaire at the end of April, 1942, on her second patrol.  She operated off Newfoundland with several other boats including "U 158" (commanded by Korvettenkapitän Rostin), "U 594" (commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hoffmann) and "U 94" commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ites).  A convoy was attacked and "U 593" claimed sinking of two ships.  She was herself attacked by escort vessels, but the depth-charges fell wide of their mark and no damage was sustained.  The patrol lasted about eight weeks and the U-Boat returned to St. Nazaire during the first half of July.  At the end of this patrol, Oberleutnant Schreiner left her and his place as First Watchkeeping Officer was taken by Oberleutnant Stahmer.  
  (iii)  Third Patrol  
          The third patrol lasted about four weeks.  "U 593" sailed from St. Nazaire at the end of July, returning during the second half of August, 1942.  The prisoners agreed that the U-Boat was attacked by aircraft in the Bay of Biscay without incurring damage, but there was no agreement regarding the sinkings on the patrol.  Some stated that nothing was sunk while others maintained that at least one ship was sunk.  
  (iv)  Fourth Patrol  
          "U 593" sailed from St. Nazaire for the Mediterranean late in September, 1942, on her fourth patrol.  She passed through the Straits of Gibraltar on about 1st October and proceeded directly to Spezia.  Prisoners from "U 458" (sunk near Malta on 22nd August, 1943) stated that "U 593" entered the Mediterranean with them and with "U 605" and a U-Boat commanded by Bauer.  They gave the date as 9th or 10th October, 1942.  
  (v)  Fifth Patrol  
          On her fifth patrol, Leutnant (Ing.) Liebig became the Engineer Officer.  The U-Boat sailed from Spezia at the end of October, 1942.  After being out some days, she sighted H.M.S. "Rodney."  The U-Boat carried out an attack by day at periscope depth but all of her torpedoes missed.  Since no attempt was made to attack the U-Boat, the prisoners believed that "Rodney" was unaware of their presence.  The patrol lasted about three weeks and ended at Pola.  It is probable that one merchant vessel was sunk on this patrol.  
  (vi)  Sixth Patrol  
          In December, 1942, Leutnant Sührenhagen replaced Stahmer as First Watchkeeping Officer.  "U 593" sailed from Pola shortly before Christmas and returned 31st December, 1942, without having scored any success.  She remained in Pola until early February, 1943, undergoing overhaul.  
  (vii)  Seventh Patrol  
          The U-Boat sailed from Pola shortly after 5th February, 1943, remaining at sea for about three weeks.  During this period, two merchant ships were said to have been sunk.  
  (viii)  Eighth Patrol  
          The eighth patrol lasted sixteen of eighteen days.  "U 593" sailed from Pola at the end of March, 1943, and put in at Salamis about mid April.  Two merchant ships were said to have been sunk.  
  (ix)  Ninth Patrol  
          No specific details could be learned of the ninth patrol.  It must have been a short one, however, as it ended in Salamis about 1st May, 1943.  Several days later, the U-Boat proceeded directly to Pola for repairs.  There her 88 mm. (3.46 in.) deck gun was removed.  
  (x)  Tenth Patrol  
          Shortly before "U 593" sailed on her tenth patrol, Krondorfer was promoted to First Watchkeeping Officer and his place as Second Watchkeeping Officer was taken by Kurt Heinemann of the October, 1940 term.  Armed only with her 20 mm gun, "U 593" sailed from Pola for the last time early in June, 1943.  The patrol was a long one, lasting five weeks.  Prisoners stated that two 6,000-ton merchantmen were sunk before it ended.  In mid-July the U-Boat put in at Toulon.  She entered dry dock for overhaul, her second bandstand was added and the 20 mm quadruple mounting was fitted.  
  (xi)  Eleventh Patrol  
          Before "U 593" sailed on her eleventh patrol, Heinemann became First Watchkeeping Officer and Leutnant Armin Weighardt the Second Watchkeeping Officer.  The patrol was a short one.  The U-Boat sailed from Toulon in mid-August.  After being out only a few days, she was surprised on the surface by an aircraft, stated to be a fighter.  The plane machine-gunned the U-Boat, scoring hits on the bridge and damaging one of the periscopes.  She made no attempt to open fire, but dived immediately and returned to Toulon for repairs.  
          On 21st August, 1943, the German High Command announced that Kelbling had been awarded the Knight's Cross for sinking 13 ships and damaging four others.  He was credited with having sunk 67,083 tons of shipping  


  (xii)  Twelfth Patrol  
          The twelfth patrol of "U 593" was brief and uneventful.  She sailed from Toulon in mid-September, returning about two weeks later.  During this time, she sighted H.M.S. "Furious" and a British battleship but made no attempt to attack.  
  (xiii)  Thirteenth Patrol  
          "U 593" sank her first warship on her thirteenth patrol.  She sailed from Toulon early in October and patrolled an area off the south-west coast of Italy.  A convoy was sighted and the U-Boat attacked from a distance of about 1,500 m. (1.640 yards).  A spread of three torpedoes was fired and one scored a hit on a destroyer which, the prisoners believed, sank.  (N.I.D. Note.  U.S.S. "Buck" was torpedoed and sunk on 9th October, 1943, about 30 miles south of Capri.)  It was stated that two merchant vessels were also sunk on this patrol.  
          The U-Boat returned to Toulon at the end of October, 1943.  The quadruple 20 mm. mounting was removed and two twin mountings of the same calibre were mounted on the lower bandstand.  
  (xiv)  Fourteenth Patrol  
          Shortly before "U 593" was due to sail on her penultimate patrol, the Senior Officer of the 29th Flotilla was informed by a German General of an Allied plot for taking agents out of France and landing others from a submarine.  Kelbling was given the task of preventing this undertaking.  He was ordered to wait until the agents were set ashore.  He was then to attack the submarine as she was waiting for the others to embark and, if possible, he was to capture them.  
          About 10th November, 1943 the U-Boat, carrying only five torpedoes, sailed from Toulon and proceeded to the specified point, said to be the Baie de Cavalaire, about 10 miles south-west of St. Tropez (East of Toulon).  She waited there for four days without sighting anything, although on the second day, the hydrophone operator reported screw noises from what he believed to be a submarine.  
          When "U 593" returned to Toulon, about 12 days after sailing, Kelbling was told that the agents had been captured ashore and that no further agents had been landed by a submarine.  


Nominal Roll of "U 593"
English Equivalent.
Kelbling, Gerd Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant
12.  6.15
Heinemann, Kurt Leutnant zur See Junior Sub-Lieutenant
13.  2.23
Weighardt, Armin Leutnant zur See Junior Sub-Lieutenant
11.  4.23
Liebig, Martin Leutnant (ing.) Junior Sub-Lieutenant (E)
31.  7.20
Törpisch, Klaus Marine Stabsarzt Surgeon-Lieutenant
23.  8.11
Deistung, Robert Obermaschinist Chief Stoker and Chief E.R.A. 1st or 2nd Class.
11.  3.20
Unmann, Fritz Obermaschinist Chief Stoker and Chief E.R.A. 1st or 2nd Class.
13.  5.14
Ludwig, Hermann Oberbootsmannsmaat Acting P.O. (Seaman's Branch)
22.  1.22
Kratz, Heinz Bootsmann P.O. (Seaman's Branch)
Ueberschär, Günther Obermaschinenmaat Acting Stoker P.O. and E.R.A., 4th Class
17.  8.17
Wibker, Gerhardt Obermaschinenmaat Acting Stoker P.O. and E.R.A., 4th Class
Zimmermann, Fritz Oberfunkmaat Acting P.O. Telegraphist
9.  9.19
Hünert, Günther Obermechanikersmaat Acting P.O. (Leading Torpedoman)
11.  2.20
Kunze, Erich Bootsmannsmaat Leading Seaman
Trautner, Richard Maschinenmaat Leading Stoker and E.R.A., 5th Class
5.  2.18
Rietz, Walter Maschinenmaat Leading Stoker and E.R.A., 5th Class
6.  6.22
Barth, Theodor Maschinenmaat Leading Stoker and E.R.A., 5th Class
31.  7.23
Klien, Johann Maschinenmaat Leading Stoker and E.R.A., 5th Class
21.  3.22
Engel, Kurt Funkmaat Leading Telegraphist
Ulmer, Willi Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
7.  3.24
Meyer, Otto Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
4.  4.22
Kutzki, Helmut Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
13.  3.23
Kreye, Heinrich Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
Hensel, Walter Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
Bruegmann, Johannes Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
18.  9.19
Heep, Hans Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
14.  7.22
Klemm, Werner Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
Ketzner, Werner Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
24.  7.22
Schumacher, Josef Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
2.  5.23
Rosenthal, Rudolf Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
14.  3.24
Psik, Erwin Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
7.  1.22
Polzer, Otto Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
Mühlenbrock, Rudolf Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
2.  6.22
Kirchhoff, Walter Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
17.  6.24
Doehring, Gerhard Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
5.  5.23
Dunkes, Heinrich Mechanikerobergefreiter Able Seaman (S.T.)
5.  3.21
Engl, Rupert Mechanikerobergefreiter Able Seaman (S.T.)
26.  1.23
Bahlo, Heinz Matrosengefreiter Able Seaman
12.  6.20
Sieberichs, Peter Matrosengefreiter Able Seaman
6.  2.22
Chowanski, Gerhard Matrosengefreiter Able Seaman
25.  1.24
Sammer, Herbert Matrosengefreiter Able Seaman
18.  7.24
Auerswald, Martin Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
2.  7.23
Kunter, Franz Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
10.  1.25
Philipsen, Werner Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
20.  9.23
Vedder, Eugen Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 1st Class
6.  8.22
Lingelbach, Georg Funkgefreiter Telegraphist
13.  6.24
Lemmer, Horst Funkgefreiter Telegraphist 25.  1.24
Strauch, Karl Mechanikergefreiter Able Seaman (S.T.) 31.  8.21
Liebscher, Helmut Matrose I Ordinary Seaman 22.  7.24
Glebsattel, Erich Matrose I Ordinary Seaman 14.  6.19
Officers . .
Chief and Petty Officers . .
Men . .
(C51975)   500    5/44